National Vital Statistics System: Linked Birth and Infant Death Data (NVSS-L)

Sponsor

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).

Description

NCHS's Division of Vital Statistics obtains information on births and deaths from the registration offices of each of the 50 States, New York City, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and Northern Mariana Islands. Before 1972 microfilm copies of all death certificates and a 50% sample of birth certificates were received from all registration areas and processed by NCHS. In 1972, some States began sending their data to NCHS through the Cooperative Health Statistics System (CHSS). States that participated in the CHSS program processed 100% of their death and birth records and sent the entire data file to NCHS on computer tapes.

Currently, data are sent to NCHS through the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program (VSCP), following the same procedures as CHSS. The number of participating States grew from 6 in 1972 to 46 in 1984. Starting in 1985, all 50 States and the District of Columbia participated in VSCP.

In the linked birth and infant death data set, the information from the death certificate is linked to the information from the birth certificate for each infant less than age 1 who dies in the United States, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, and Guam. Starting with data year 1995, linked file data are produced in a period data format preceding the release of the corresponding birth cohort format. The 2005 linked file contains a numerator file that consists of all infant deaths occurring in 2005 that have been linked to their corresponding birth certificates, whether the birth occurred in 2004 or 2005.

Other changes to the dataset, starting with 1995 data, include addition of record weights to correct for the 1.0% to 1.4% of records that could not be linked in 2000 to 2005 (2% in 1995 to 1999) and imputation for unstated birth weight.

Primary Survey Content

The vital statistics general mortality data are a fundamental source of geographic and cause-of-death information and some demographic information. The birth certificate is the primary source of demographic information, such as age, race, and Hispanic origin of the parents; maternal education; live birth order; and mother's marital status; and of maternal and infant health information, such as birth weight, period of gestation, plurality, prenatal care use, and maternal smoking.

Population Targeted

Infants in 50 States and the District of Columbia.

Demographic Data

Age, gender, race, and Hispanic origin of infant and parents, mother's education and marital status.

Years Collected

Linked data are available for the data years 1983-1991 and 1995-2009.

Schedule

Annual.

Geographic Estimates*

National, State.

Place of death is classified by State and county. In residence classification, all deaths are allocated to the usual place of residence as reported on the death certificate and are classified by State, county, and city.

Notes

Data on mother's educational attainment, tobacco use during pregnancy, and prenatal care based on the 2003 revision are not comparable with data based on the 1989 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth.

Contact Information

Agency home page: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs.

Data system home page: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/linked-birth.htm.

References

Mathews TJ, MacDorman MF. Infant mortality statistics from the 2009 period linked birth/infant death data set. National Vital Statistics Reports; vol 61 no 8. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2013.

National Vital Statistics System: Mortality (NVSS-M)

Sponsor

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).

Description

NVSS mortality files include data for the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and the territories of Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas. All deaths occurring in those areas are included (approximately 2.4 to 2.5 million annually).

By law, registration of deaths is a funeral director's responsibility. Administrative records (death certificates) completed by funeral directors, physicians, medical examiners, and coroners are filed with State vital statistics offices. Selected statistical information is forwarded to NCHS to be merged into a national statistical file.

States are phasing in the 2003 revision of the standard certificates. Those that have not revised yet are using the 1989 version of the standard certificates. Demographic information on the death certificate is provided by the funeral director and is based on information supplied by an informant. Medical certification of cause of death is provided by a physician, medical examiner, or coroner.

Currently, data are sent to NCHS through the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program (VSCP). All 50 States and the District of Columbia have participated in VSCP since 1985.

Primary Content

Demographic and medical information and information about death event such as age at death, Hispanic origin, race, sex, marital status, decedent's residence, place of birth, educational attainment, underlying and multiple causes of death, injury at work, place death occurred, day of week of death, month of death, and year of death.

Population Targeted

U.S. population.

Demographic Data

Demographic data include: sex, race, Hispanic origin, age at death, place of decedent's residence, educational attainment, and marital status.

Race and ethnic origin are separate items on the death certificate. As of 1997, all States report Hispanic origin. The categories reported include Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central and South American, and Other Hispanic. Beginning in 1992, California, Hawaii, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, Texas, and Washington reported expanded Asian and Pacific Islander categories - Asian Indian, Korean, Vietnamese, Samoan, and Guamanian. The rest of the States reported a combined Other Asian and Pacific Islander category in addition to the categories of White, Black, American Indian, Chinese, Hawaiian, Japanese, and Filipino that all States report. Beginning with data for 2003, multiple-race data is available for selected States and the previous distinction about particular Asian groups is being replaced by the categories available on the 2003 revision of the standard certificate.

Years Collected

The mortality reporting data system began in 1880, but not all States participated before 1933. Coverage for deaths has been complete since 1933.

Schedule

Annual.

Geographic Estimates*

National, regional, state, and county but access below national has limitations.

Notes

Beginning with 1989 data, some changes were initiated to increase confidentiality. Identifying information, including date of death and geographic identifiers for counties of fewer than 100,000 persons, was not available for public use. Beginning with 2005 data, geographic identifiers below the national level were removed from the public use data files. Data are still accessible using tools such as WONDER (http://wonder.cdc.gov).

The item on educational attainment was changed on the 2003 revision of the standard certificate. Some states have implemented the 2003 revision, while others still use the 1989 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Death. One state does not have either version of the item.

Contact Information

Agency home page: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs.

Data system home page: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/deaths.htm.

References

Murphy SL, Xu J, Kochanek KD. Deaths: Final data for 2010. National Vital Statistics Reports; vol 61 no 4. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2013.

Hoyert DL, Xu JQ. Deaths: Preliminary Data for 2011. National Vital Statistics Reports; vol 61 no 6. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2012.


National Vital Statistics System: Natality (NVSS-N)

Sponsor

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).

Description

NVSS natality files include approximately 4 million birth records annually, with data for the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and the territories of Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas.

State laws require birth certificates to be completed for all births. The registration of births is the responsibility of the professional attendant at birth, generally a physician or midwife. Federal law mandates national collection and publication of birth and other vital statistics data.

Birth certificates completed by physicians and midwives are filed with State vital statistics offices; selected statistical information is forwarded to NCHS to be merged into a national statistical file. Standard forms for the collection of the data and model procedures for the uniform registration of the events are developed and recommended for State use through cooperative activities of the States and NCHS (the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program).

The most recent revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth was effective in 2003. Implementation of the 2003 revision is being phased in by the states. As of 2011, 36 states and the District of Columbia, representing 83% of 2011 births, had implemented the 2003 revision. Those states that have not yet implemented the 2003 revision are using the 1989 revision. Full implementation of the 2003 revision of the standard certificate is expected by January 1, 2014.

Primary Content

Demographic information about the birth such as: year, date, place of birth, age, race and Hispanic origin of mother, and live-birth order.

Maternal and infant health information about the birth such as: maternal age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, marital status, attendant at birth, method of delivery, period of gestation, birth weight, plurality, medical risk factors, maternal weight gain, obstetric procedures, characteristics of labor and delivery, and congenital anomalies.

Population Targeted

U.S. resident population.

Demographic Data

Child: Sex.

Mother and father: Race, Hispanic origin (beginning in 1978), age, place of mother's residence, and educational attainment (beginning in 1978) (education of father is currently collected on the 2003 revision of the standard certificate).

Mother: marital status.

Race and Hispanic origin are separate items on the birth certificate. As of 1993, all States report Hispanic origin. The categories reported include Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central and South American, and Other Hispanic. Beginning with 1992 data, California, Hawaii, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, Texas, and Washington have reported expanded Asian and Pacific Islander (API) categories of Asian Indian, Korean, Vietnamese, Samoan, and Guamanian. The rest of the States report a combined Other Asian and Pacific Islander category in addition to the categories of White, Black, American Indian, Chinese, Hawaiian, Japanese, and Filipino that all States report. Beginning with data for 2003, multiple-race data is available for selected States and the previous distinction about particular Asian groups is being replaced by the categories available on the 2003 revision of the standard certificate.

Years Collected

The national birth registration system was established in 1915. Not all States participated before 1933. Coverage for births has been complete since 1933.

Schedule

Annual.

Geographic Estimates*

National, regional, State, county, and city, but access below national has limitations.

Notes

Beginning with 1989 data, some changes were initiated to increase confidentiality. Identifying information, including geographic identifiers for counties of fewer than 100,000 persons, is not available for public use. Beginning with 2005 data, geographic identifiers below the national level were removed from the public use data files. Data are still accessible using tools such as VitalStats (https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data_access/vitalstatsonline.htm) and WONDER (http://wonder.cdc.gov). In addition, restricted data files with geographic identifiers are available and may be requested (http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/dvs_data_release.htm).

Data on mother's educational attainment, tobacco use during pregnancy, and prenatal care based on the 2003 revision are not comparable with data based on the 1989 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth.

Contact Information

Agency home page: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs.

Data system home page: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/births.htm.

References

Martin JA, Hamilton BE, Ventura SJ, et al. Births: Final Data for 2010. National vital statistics reports; vol 61 no 1. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2012.

Hamilton BE, Martin JA, Ventura SJ. Births: Preliminary data for 2011. National vital statistics reports; vol 61 no 5. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2012.

*: NHQDR tables from MVSS-L, NVSS-M, and NVSS-N report urbanlization levels. Counties were classified according to their metropolitan status using the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) Urban-Rural Classification Scheme.

The 2000-2015 NVSS estimates for the 2003-2017 NHQDR used the 2006 NCHS Metropolitan statistical areas file which was based on the 2000 OMB standards and on 2000 Census.

Since the 2018 NHQDR, NVSS estimates used the 2013 NCHS Metropolitan statistical areas file which was based on the 2013 OMB standards and on Vintage 2012 postcensal estimates of the resident U.S. population.